The Impact of Residential Combustion Emissions on Air Quality and Human Health in China

Tuesday, 15 December 2015
Poster Hall (Moscone South)
Scott Archer-Nicholls1, Christine Wiedinmyer2, Jill Baumgartner3, Michael Brauer4, Aaron Cohen5, Ellison Carter6, Joseph Frostad7, Mohammad Forouzanfar7, Qingyang Xiao8, Yang Liu8, Xudong Yang9, Niu Hongjiang9 and Ni Kun9, (1)University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, United States, (2)National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, United States, (3)McGill University, Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics & Occupational Health, Montreal, QC, Canada, (4)University of British Columbia, School of Population and Public Health, Vancouver, BC, Canada, (5)Health Effects Institute, Boston, MA, United States, (6)University of Minnesota Twin Cities, Institute on the Environment, Minneapolis, MN, United States, (7)Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Seattle, WA, United States, (8)Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States, (9)Tsinghua University, Department of Building Science, Beijing, China
Solid fuel cookstoves are used heavily in rural China for both residential cooking and heating purposes. Their use contributes significantly to regional emissions of several key pollutants, including carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, oxides of nitrogen, and aerosol particles. The residential sector was responsible for approximately 36%, 46% and 81% of China’s total primary PM2.5, BC and OC emissions respectively in 2005 (Lei et al., 2011). These emissions have serious consequences for household air pollution, ambient air quality, tropospheric ozone formation, and the resulting population health and climate impacts.

This paper presents initial findings from the modeling component of a multi-disciplinary energy intervention study currently being conducted in Sichuan, China. The purpose of this effort is to quantify the impact of residential cooking and heating emissions on regional air quality and human health. Simulations with varying levels of residential emissions have been carried out for the whole of 2014 using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem), a fully-coupled, “online” regional chemical transport model. Model output is evaluated against surface air quality measurements across China and compared with seasonal (winter and summer) ambient air pollution measurements conducted at the Sichuan study site in 2014. The model output is applied to available exposure—response relationships between PM2.5 and cardiopulmonary health outcomes. The sensitivity in different regions across China to the different cookstove emission scenarios and seasonality of impacts are presented. By estimating the mortality and disease burden risk attributable to residential emissions we demonstrate the potential benefits from large-scale energy interventions.

Lei Y, Zhang Q, He KB, Streets DG. 2011. Primary anthropogenic aerosol emission trends for China, 1990–2005. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11:931–954.