Retooling Predictive Relations for non-volatile PM by Comparison to Measurements
Abstract:Non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions from jet aircraft at cruise altitude are of particular interest for climate and atmospheric processes but are difficult to measure and are normally approximated. To provide such inventory estimates the present approach is to use measured, ground-based values with scaling to cruise (engine operating) conditions. Several points are raised by this approach. First is what ground based values to use. Empirical and semi-empirical approaches, such as the revised first order approximation (FOA3) and formation-oxidation (FOX) methods, each with embedded assumptions are available to calculate a ground-based black carbon concentration, CBC. Second is the scaling relation that can depend upon the ratios of fuel-air equivalence, pressure, and combustor flame temperature.
We are using measured ground-based values to evaluate the accuracy of present methods towards developing alternative methods for CBCby smoke number or via a semi-empirical kinetic method for the specific engine, CFM56-2C, representative of a rich-dome style combustor, and as one of the most prevalent engine families in commercial use. Applying scaling relations to measured ground based values and comparison to measurements at cruise evaluates the accuracy of current scaling formalism.
In partnership with GE Aviation, performing engine cycle deck calculations enables critical comparison between estimated or predicted thermodynamic parameters and true (engine) operational values for the CFM56-2C engine. Such specific comparisons allow tracing differences between predictive estimates for, and measurements of nvPM to their origin – as either divergence of input parameters or in the functional form of the predictive relations. Such insights will lead to development of new predictive tools for jet aircraft nvPM emissions. Such validated relations can then be extended to alternative fuels with confidence in operational thermodynamic values and functional form. Comparisons will then be made between these new predictive relationships and measurements of nvPM from alternative fuels using ground and cruise data – as collected during NASA-led AAFEX and ACCESS field campaigns, respectively.