Single hole multi-parameter downhole monitoring of shallow CO2 injection at Maguelone experimental site (Languedoc, France)
Abstract:The Maguelone experimental site for shallow subsurface hydrogeophysical monitoring, located along the Mediterranean Lido near Montpellier (Languedoc, France) has proven over the years to provide a unique setup to test gas storage monitoring methods at shallow depth. The presence of two small reservoirs (R1: 13-16 m and R2: 8-9 m) with impermeable boundaries provides an opportunity to study a saline formation for geological storage both in the field and in a laboratory context.
This integrated monitoring concept was first applied at Maguelone for characterization of the reservoir state before and during N2 and CO2 injections as part of the MUSTANG FP7 project. Multimethod monitoring was shown to be sensitive to gas storage within a saline reservoir with clear data changes immediately after the beginning of injection. Pressure remains the first indicator of gas storage at ~8-9 m depth in a small permeable unit (gravels/shells) under the Holocene lagoonal sediments. A good correlation is also obtained between the resistivity response and geochemical parameters from pore fluid sampling (pH, minor and major cation concentrations) at this depth.
On the basis of previous gas injection experiments, new holes were drilled as part of PANACEA (EC project) in 2014, including an injection hole targeted for injection at 8-9 m depth in the R2 reservoir in order to have gas injection and gas storage at the same depth, a single hole multi-parameter observatory, and a seismic source hole. A total volume of ~48 m3 of CO2 was injected over ~2 hours on December 4, 2014. The injection rate varied from 24 to 30 m3/h, with a well head pressure of 1.8 bars. All downhole monitoring technologies (resistivity, temperature, pressure, SP and seismic measurements) were combined in the single hole observatory. Such device allows monitoring the downhole system before and after injection and the gas migration from the injection hole, helping to characterize the transport mechanism. Decreasing the number of monitoring-measurements and verification (MMV) holes enables a significant decrease of gas leakage risk. This specific monitoring approach is expected to give information about the safety and reliability of CO2 storage operation that guarantees public acceptance.