Ambipolar electric fields at Earth, Mars, and Venus

Glyn Collinson1, Alex Glocer1, David L Mitchell2, Shaosui Xu2, Rudy Frahm3, Joseph M Grebowsky1, Andrew J Coates4, George V Khazanov5, Shawn D Domagal-Goldman6 and Robert J Lillis2, (1)NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, United States, (2)Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, United States, (3)Southwest Research Institute, Southwest Reasarch Institute, San Antonio, TX, United States, (4)The Centre for Planetary Sciences at UCL/Birkbeck, London, United Kingdom, (5)NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Sci. Div., Greenbelt, MD, United States, (6)NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Planetary Environments Laboratory, Greenbelt, MD, United States