Antarctic Circumpolar Current Dynamics and Their Relation to Antarctic Ice Sheet and Perennial Sea-Ice Variability in the Central Drake Passage During the Last Climate Cycle

Gerhard Kuhn1, Shuzhuang Wu1, H. Christian Hass2, Johann P. Klages1, Xufeng Zheng1,3, Helge W Arz4, Oliver Esper1, Claus-Dieter Hillenbrand5, Carina Lange6, Frank Lamy1, Gerrit Lohmann7, Juliane Müller1, I.N. Nicholas McCave8, Dirk Nürnberg9, Jenny Roberts1, Ralf Tiedemann1, Axel Timmermann10, Jürgen Titschack11,12 and Xu Zhang7, (1)Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), Marine Geology, 27568 Bremerhaven, Germany, (2)Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Wadden Sea Station Sylt (AWI), Coastal Ecology, Biosciences, 25992 List, Germany, (3)SCSIO South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Marginal Sea Geology, Guangzhou 510301, China, (4)Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Rostock, Germany, (5)British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, United Kingdom, (6)Universidad de Concepción, Departamento de Oceanografía, Investigador Asociado COPAS Sur-Austral & Centro FONDAP-IDEAL, Concepción, Chile, (7)Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), Paleo-climate Dynamics, 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany, (8)University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom, (9)GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, 24148 Kiel, Germany, (10)Pusan National University, IBS Center for Climate Physics, Busan, South Korea, (11)University of Bremen, Marum - Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, 28359 Bremen, Germany, (12)Senckenberg am Meer, Marine Research Department, 26382 Wilhelmshaven, Germany