Reversing Climate Change within 100 years: The scale to restore natural CO2 levels

Mark E Capron, OceanForesters, Oxnard, CA, United States, Antoine de Ramon N'Yeurt, University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji, Jang K. Kim, Incheon National University, Incheon, South Korea, Craig Pichach, CleanCarbon Energy, Calgary, AB, Canada, Michael D. Chambers, University of New Hampshire, Durham, Durham, NH, United States, Rae Fuhrman, Stingray Sensing, Santa Barbara, CA, United States, Anthony T. Jones, Intake Works, Sacramento, CA, United States, Jim R Stewart, OceanForesters, Inc., Ventura, CA, United States, Reginald B. Blaylock, University of Southern Mississippi, Ocean Springs, MS, United States, Mohammed A. Hasan, OceanForesters, Ventura, CA, United States, Don Piper, OceanForesters, Beaufort, NC, United States, Graham Harris, OceanForesters, Auckland, New Zealand, Martin T. Sherman, OceanForesters, London, United Kingdom and Scott C James, Baylor University, Geosciences and Mechanical Engineering, Waco, TX, United States
Advances in biomass production synergistically combine with developments in capture and sequestering technologies and practices to achieve zero fossil-CO2 emissions by 2050. Restoring preindustrial CO2 levels is achievable with extraction and permanent sequestration of two trillion tons of CO2 from the atmosphere and oceans by 2150. The flow of energy and CO2 is as follows: (1) sunlight and recycled nutrients grow 200 billion wet metric tons of biomass annually. Any biomass is acceptable including: macroalgae, other marine plants, and epiphytes grown in restorative aquaculture ocean forest ecosystems; blends of microalgae species mixed with microbes; and trash (wet organic wastes, paper, and plastic). Initially, mostly developing countries use 100% of the macroalgae primary productivity as in situ feed for marine animals providing global food security and improved ocean biodiversity. If ocean forest ecosystems are producing 200 billion wet metric tons of biomass annually, 1% of the macroalgae primary productivity assures global food security and ocean biodiversity. (2) Wet biomass supplies hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) production of over 130 million barrels of biocrude oil per day and 2 million metric tons per day of ammonia nitrogen in water . The HTL byproduct water and the remaining solids contain plant nutrients needed to grow more macro- and microalgae . (3) HTL biocrude is converted to 40 billion MWh per year of electricity and 20 billion tons of liquid CO2 per year in Allam Cycle power plants. (4) Liquid CO2 can be permanently sequestered in any of several routes. Each of the four steps can scale to meet the global demands. Scenarios are analyzed globally and specifically for Fiji and Korea for time to net-zero and time to natural CO2 levels. The scenarios range from business as usual (300,000 MW of new fossil-steam electric power plant capacity built globally without carbon capture and storage) to renewable energy instead of the fossil-steam to 20 years of fossil-Allam Cycle followed by biofuel-Allam Cycle (with carbon capture and storage on both) all subject to two different global electric energy demand scenarios (the current 2,700 kWh/person/yr or 10,000 kWh/person/yr due to sustainable development in developing countries).