Surface and groundwater influence on spatial distribution of geochemistry and water quality in Maunalua Bay
The present study aims to better understand the linkage between anthropogenic activities, surface water and groundwater quality, and coastal biogeochemistry in Maunalua Bay and to contextualize prior studies at focal locations in the Bay with comprehensive synoptic sampling. Over four days in August 2019, we collected ~180 nearshore and offshore water samples at low tide across Maunalua Bay. Water samples were analyzed for nutrients, chlorophyll, total suspended solids, carbonate system parameters, fluorescent dissolved organic matter (fDOM), cytometric counts, and microbial community composition and contextualized with in-situ measurements of physical water quality parameters (temperature, salinity, oxygen, turbidity, pH). Simultaneous measurements by a current meter deployed in the Bay provided further context for water movement. The high spatial resolution of sampling sites allowed us to map water column chemistry across Maunalua Bay and the mixing of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and terrestrial run-off. Together this comprehensive data set allows us to characterize the sources and distribution of distinct geochemical signatures of human activities in the Bay. Furthermore, the data supports strategic prioritization and management by state agencies and community-based organizations involved in resource management and restoration of this biologically and culturally significant site.