Comparisons of Low-Strain Amplification at Soft-Sediment, Hard-Rock, Topographic, and Fault-Zone Sites in the Hayward Fault Zone, California
Wednesday, 17 December 2014
We used a temporary network of approximately 600 seismographs to record a seismic source generated by the collapse of a 13-story building near the active trace of the Hayward Fault. These data allow us to evaluate variations in ground shaking across a series of 30 2-km-long radial arrays centered on the seismic source. Individual seismographs were spaced at 200-m intervals, forming a series of 360°concentric arrays around the seismic source. The data show variations in amplification caused by (1) soft sediments within the East Bay alluvial plain (EBAP), (2) hard rocks within the East Bay hills (EBH), (3) low-velocity rocks within the Hayward Fault zone (HFZ), and (4) topography. Given that ground shaking varies strongly with distance from the source, the concentric arrays allowed us to measure variations in ground shaking as a function of azimuth at fixed distances from the source. On individual linear profiles within the concentric arrays, we observed decreases in peak ground velocity (PGV) across the HFZ and other faults within the EBH. However, for a given distance from the source, we observe four to five fold amplification from the EBAP sites compared to most sites in the EBH. Topographic and fault-zone amplification effects within the EBH, however, are greater than the EBAP sediment amplification. Thus, for future earthquakes, shaking at many sites within the EBH may be significantly stronger than many sites within the EBAP. These observations suggest amplification can be expected in unconsolidated sediments, but topographic and fault-zone amplification can be larger. This confirms the importance of site effects for hazard mitigation and in interpreting MMI for future and historical earthquakes.