The 2014 Broadband Acquisition and Imaging Operation (BAcIO) at Stromboli Volcano (Italy)

Thursday, 18 December 2014
Piergiorgio Scarlato1, Jacopo Taddeucci1, Elisabetta Del Bello1, Damien Gaudin1, Tullio Ricci1, Daniele Andronico1, Luigi Lodato1, Andrea Cannata1, Ferruccio Ferrari1, Tim R Orr2, Joern Sesterhenn3, Rick Plescher3, Yasmin Baumgärtel3, Andrew John Lang Harris4, Maxime Bombrun4, Talfan D Barnie4, Bruce F Houghton5, Ulrich Kueppers6 and Antonio Capponi7, (1)National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, Rome, Italy, (2)Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, USGS, Hawaii National Park, HI, United States, (3)Technische Universitat Berlin, Berlin, Germany, (4)Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans, Clermont-Ferrand Cedex, France, (5)Univ Hawaii Manoa, SOEST, Honolulu, HI, United States, (6)Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Earth & Environmental Sciences, Munich, Germany, (7)University of Lancaster, Lancaster, LA1, United Kingdom
In May 2014, Stromboli volcano, one of the best natural laboratories for the study of weak explosive volcanism, hosted a large combination of state-of-the-art and prototype eruption monitoring technologies. Aiming to expand our parameterization capabilities for explosive eruption dynamics, we temporarily deployed in direct view of the active vents a range of imaging, acoustic, and seismic data acquisition systems.

Imaging systems included: two high-speed visible cameras acquiring synchronized images at 500 and 1000 frames per second (fps); two thermal infrared forward looking (FLIR) cameras zooming into the active vents and acquiring at 50-200 fps; two FLIR cameras acquiring at lower (3-50 fps) frame rates with a broader field of view; one visible time-lapse camera; one UV camera system for the measurement of sulphur dioxide emission; and one drone equipped with a camcorder.

Acoustic systems included: four broadband microphones (range of tens of kHz to 0.1 Hz), two of them co-located with one of the high-speed cameras and one co-located with one of the seismometers (see below); and an acoustic microphone array. This array included sixteen microphones with a circular arrangement located on a steep slope above the active vents.

Seismic systems included two broadband seismometers, one of them co-located with one of the high-speed cameras, and one co-located with one of the microphones.

The above systems were synchronized with a variety of methods, and temporarily added to the permanent monitoring networks already operating on the island. Observation focus was on pyroclast ejection processes extending from the shallow conduit, through their acceleration and interaction with the atmosphere, and to their dispersal and deposition. The 3-D distribution of bombs, the sources of jet noise in the explosions, the comparison between methods for estimating explosion properties, and the relations between erupted gas and magma volumes, are some examples of the processes targeted by the BAcIO.