20,000 Photons Under the Snow: Subsurface Scattering of Visible Laser Light and the Implications for Laser Altimeters

Tuesday, 16 December 2014
Adam Greeley, University of Maryland College Park, College Park, MD, United States, Nathan T Kurtz, NASA Goddard, Greenbelt, MD, United States, Mark Shappirio, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD, United States, Tom Neumann, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr., Greenbelt, MD, United States, William B Cook, NASA Goddard SFC, Greenbelt, MD, United States and Thorsten Markus, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD, United States
Existing visible light laser altimeters such as ATM (Airborne Topographical Mapper) with NASA’s Operation IceBridge and NASA’s MABEL (Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar; a simulator for NASA’s ICESat-2 mission) are providing scientists with a view of Earth’s ice sheets, glaciers, and sea ice with unprecedented detail. Measuring how these surfaces evolve in the face of a rapidly changing climate requires the utmost attention to detail in the design and calibration of these instruments, as well as understanding the changing optical properties of these surfaces. As single photon counting lidars, MABEL and NASA’s ATLAS (Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System) on the upcoming ICESat-2 mission provide fundamentally different information compared with waveform lidars such as ATM, or GLAS (Geoscience Laser Altimeter System) on NASA’s previous ICESat-1 mission. By recording the travel times of individual photons, more detailed information about the surface, and potentially the subsurface, are available and must be considered in elevation retrievals from the observed photon cloud. Here, we investigate possible sources of uncertainty associated with monochromatic visible light scattering in subsurface snow, which may affect the precision and accuracy of elevation estimates. We also explore the capacity to estimate snow grain size in near surface snow using experimental visible light laser data obtained in laboratory experiments.