Pre-Processing and Cross-Correlation Techniques for Time-Distance Helioseismology
Abstract:In chaotic wave fields excited by a random distribution of noise sources a cross-correlation of the recordings made at two stations yield the interstation wave-field response. After early successes in helioseismology, laboratory studies and earth-seismology, this technique found broad application in global and regional seismology. This development came with an increasing understanding of pre-processing and cross-correlation workflows to yield an optimal signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Helioseismologist rely heavily on stacking to increase the SNR. Until now, they have not studied different spectral-whitening and cross-correlation workflows and relies heavily on stacking to increase the SNR.
The recordings vary considerably between sunspots and regular portions of the sun. Within the sunspot the periodic effects of the observation satellite orbit are difficult to remove. We remove a running alpha-mean from the data and apply a soft clip to deal with data glitches. The recordings contain energy of both flow and waves. A frequency domain filter selects the wave energy. Then the data is input to several pre-processing and cross-correlation techniques, common to earth seismology. We anticipate that spectral whitening will flatten the energy spectrum of the cross-correlations. We also expect that the cross-correlations converge faster to their expected value when the data is processed over overlapping windows. The result of this study are expected to aid in decreasing the stacking while maintaining good SNR.