The characteristics of hydrothermal plumes observed in the Precious Stone Mountain hydrothermal field, the Galapagos spreading center
Abstract:The Precious Stone Mountain hydrothermal field (PSMHF) is located on the southern rim of the Galapagos Microplate. It was found at the 3rd leg of the 2009 Chinese DY115-21 expedition on board R/V Dayangyihao.
It is efficient to learn the distribution of hydrothermal plumes and locate the hydrothermal vents by detecting the anomalies of turbidity and temperature. Detecting seawater turbidity by MAPR based on deep-tow technology is established and improved during our cruises. We collected data recorded by MAPR and information from geological sampling, yielding the following results:
(1)Strong hydrothermal turbidity and temperature anomalies were recorded at 1.23°N, southeast and northwest of PSMHF. According to the CTD data on the mooring system, significant temperature anomalies were observed over PSMHF at the depth of 1,470 m, with anomalies range from 0.2℃ to 0.4℃, which gave another evidence of the existence of hydrothermal plume.
(2)At 1.23°N (101.4802°W/1.2305°N), the nose-shaped particle plume was concentrated at a depth interval of 1,400-1,600 m, with 200 m thickness and an east-west diffusion range of 500 m. The maximum turbidity anomaly (0.045 △NTU) was recorded at the depth of 1,500 m, while the background anomaly was about 0.01△NTU. A distinct temperature anomaly was also detected at the seafloor near 1.23°N. Deep-tow camera showed the area was piled up by hydrothermal sulfide sediments.
(3) In the southeast (101.49°W/1.21°N), the thickness of hydrothermal plume was 300 m and it was spreading laterally at a depth of 1,500-1,800 m, for a distance about 800 m. The maximum turbidity anomaly of nose-shaped plume is about 0.04 △NTU at the depth of 1,600 m. Distinct temperature anomaly was also detected in the northwest (101.515°W/1.235°N).
(4) Terrain and bottom current were the main factors controlling the distribution of hydrothermal plume. Different from the distribution of hydrothermal plumes on the mid-ocean ridges, which was mostly effected by seafloor topography, the terrain of the PSMHF was relatively flat, so the impact was negligible. Southwest direction bottom current at the speed of 0.05 m/s in PSMHF had a great influence on the distribution and spreading direction of hydrothermal plume.
Keyword: hydrothermal plume, Precious Stone Mountain hydrothermal field, turbidity