The paleoenvironmental and climatic record of the Common Era in core sediments of Lake Abashiri in the east part of Hokkaido, Japan
Abstract:In the coastal area of the Sea of Okhotsk in the east part of Hokkaido located to for subarctic zone, many brackish-water lakes are distributed. Lake Abashiri has a distinct halocline around 5m depths, and is divided into oligohaline epilimnion and polyhaline hypolimnion by its pycnocline. In this study, paleoenvironmental and climatic changes of the Common Era in Abashiri region is discussed by sedimentologic and geochemical high-resolution analysis of the sediment cores collected from the Lake Abashiri. The 13AB-B1 core collected from Lake Abashiri shows the length of 27m. This core is composed of muddy sediment with a distinct lamination up to 19.31m below surface. The Ta-a tephra (AD 1739), Ko-c2 tephra (AD 1694) and Ma-b tephra (10th century) are found at the horizon of 2.65m, 2.91m, and 6.19m below surface, respectively. Sedimentation rate based on these ages was 5.7mm/yr between Ko-c2 tephra and Ta-a tephra, and was 4.7mm/yr between Ma-b tephra and Ko-c2 tephra. The environment of bottom water indicates the anoxic and/or euxinic conditions during the Common Era.
The result of observation used by Soft X-ray photograph, the lamina-set of high, low, intermediate density layers was observed. High-density layers have characteristics of low TOC, low SiO2, and high Al contents. This is suggested that high-density layer is formed by the supply of inorganic clastics. The lamina set of 44 was recognized between Ko-c2 tephra and Ta-a tephra in the 10AB-5C core. This is suggested that this set is annual lamina (varve). If its so, it is considered that high density layer indicate the high precipitation term of summer season judging from precipitation pattern in Abashiri Area during 100 years. Particularly, the year of flood events tend to show a thick and distinguished layer in lamina-set. The 13AB-B core is correlated with 10AB-5C core under the lamina level.
The high-density lamina-set group is repeated with 20 to 30 year cycle. The horizon of high-density lamina-set group is correlated with the term showing several years continuously high precipitation. This lamina-set group is observed from 400 years ago, the climate system would have been continued. There seems to be high-low density cycle of some order before this time. It is consider that this cycle is related to the rainfall pattern over the medium to long term.