Characterizing the Inner Accretionary Prism of the Nankai Trough with 3D Seismic and Logging While Drilling at IODP Site C0002

Tuesday, 16 December 2014: 5:45 PM
Brian Boston1, Gregory F Moore1, Maria Jose Jurado2, Hiroki Sone3, Harold J Tobin4, Demian M Saffer5, Takehiro Hirose6, Sean Toczko7 and Lena Maeda7, (1)University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, United States, (2)Inst de Ciencias de la Tierra, Barcelona, Spain, (3)Helmholtz Centre Potsdam GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany, (4)University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI, United States, (5)Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, United States, (6)JAMSTEC, Kochi Institute for Core Sample Research, Nankoku City, Kochi, Japan, (7)JAMSTEC Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, CDEX, Kanagawa, Japan
The deeper, inner parts of active accretionary prisms have been poorly studied due the lack of drilling data, low seismic image quality and typically thick overlying sediments. Our project focuses on the interior of the Nankai Trough inner accretionary prism using deep scientific drilling and a 3D seismic cube. International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 348 extended the existing riser hole to more than 3000 meters below seafloor (mbsf) at Site C0002. Logging while drilling (LWD) data included gamma ray, resistivity, resistivity image, and sonic logs. LWD analysis of the lower section revealed on the borehole images intense deformation characterized by steep bedding, faults and fractures. Bedding plane orientations were measured throughout, with minor gaps at heavily deformed zones disrupting the quality of the resistivity images. Bedding trends are predominantly steeply dipping (60-90°) to the NW. Interpretation of fractures and faults in the image log revealed the existence of different sets of fractures and faults and variable fracture density, remarkably high at fault zones. Gamma ray, resistivity and sonic logs indicated generally homogenous lithology interpretation along this section, consistent with the “silty-claystone” predominant lithologies described on cutting samples. Drops in sonic velocity were observed at the fault zones defined on borehole images. Seismic reflection interpretation of the deep faults in the inner prism is exceedingly difficult due to a strong seafloor multiple, high-angle bedding dips, and low frequency of the data. Structural reconstructions were employed to test whether folding of seismic horizons in the overlying forearc basin could be from an interpreted paleothrust within the inner prism. We used a trishear-based restoration to estimate fault slip on folded horizons landward of C0002. We estimate ~500 m of slip from a steeply dipping deep thrust within the last ~0.9 Ma. Folding is not found in the Kumano sediments near C0002, where normal faults and tilting dominate the modern basin deformation. Both logging and seismic are consistent in characterizing a heavily deformed inner prism. Most of this deformation must have occurred during or before formation of the overlying modern Kumano forearc basin sediments.