Spatial and Temporal Changes to Water Chemistry and Heat Flux of the Lake Rotomahana Hydrothermal System

Monday, 15 December 2014: 2:10 PM
Valerie K Stucker1, Maurice Tivey2, John E Lupton3, Sharon L Walker4, Daniel J Fornari5 and Cornel E J de Ronde1, (1)GNS Science-Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Ltd, Lower Hutt, New Zealand, (2)Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst, Woods Hole, MA, United States, (3)NOAA/PMEL, Newport, OR, United States, (4)NOAA/PMEL, Seattle, WA, United States, (5)Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, United States
Lake Rotomahana (North Island, New Zealand) is a crater lake with prominent hydrothermal venting. Water column studies were conducted in 2011 and 2014 to complement magnetic, seismic, bathymetric and heat flux surveys, respectively. Results from the heat flow survey indicate that Lake Rotomahana is getting warmer relative to historic measurements, with individual stations within the lake releasing heat in excess of 60 Watts/m2. Helium sources are found at the lake floor at depths of ~50 meters and ~100m. Helium concentrations below 50 m depth have increased with high statistical significance over the three years between surveys and represent some of the highest concentrations ever measured at 6x107 ccSTP/g with an end-member 3He/4He value of 7.1 Ra. Hydrothermal activity comprises a significant portion of the inputs to Lake Rotomahana, as evidenced by δD and δ18O values, as well as ratios of conservative elements such as boron and chloride. Waters collected from lakeshore hot springs show geographic differences in geothermal source temperature using a Na-K geothermometer, with inferred reservoir temperatures ranging from 200 to 230°C. Lake Rotomahana was in part the focus of the 1886 Tarawera eruption; our results show both pre-eruption hydrothermal sites and newly created post-eruption sites are active and should be monitored for continued changes.