Implementing SMOKE for the Evaluation of Regulatory Strategies in Bogotá, Colombia
Tuesday, 16 December 2014
Bogotá, Colombia, is rapidly growing and is about to implement regulation to reduce air pollution. This presentation details how the emissions were prepared for air quality simulations using the Sparse Matrix Operating Kernel for Emissions (SMOKE). The motivation to use SMOKE is to provide an emissions scenario to the WRF-CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecasting-Community Multiscale Air Quality) modeling system to make air quality predictions that quantify the outcome of potential emission reduction strategies.
Data was taken from the emission inventories created for service stations and for industrial, commercial and mobile sources, all of which had information provided by the local environmental agency. These inventories were formatted as inputs, which required a matching of Colombian source and industrial codes and speciation profiles with those from the United States. This pairing was imperfect, but the potential error is reduced by SMOKE’s preference for more specific information.
To allocate the emissions, SMOKE requires temporal distributions as fractional values of the total annual, weekly or daily sum. This was calculated from the emission inventories for service stations and industrial and commercial sources, while traffic counts were used for mobile sources. For the grid, all point and area sources were connected to a specific latitude and longitude pair, while mobile sources used links to identify their location on a given road segment. Any required but unavailable local data was either estimated or supplanted with the default values from the EPA. Once SMOKE was successfully run, the inputs were changed to reflect the proposed reduction strategies. The outcomes were evaluated to determine the optimal solution.
This presentation aims to show the methods used to implement SMOKE with Bogotá's emission inventories from 2012 for the purpose of quantifying air quality outcomes. Challenges inherent to this project include a lack of available information for the city, which may be common to other developing countries. The result of this project is the use of CMAQ's modeling results for the evaluation and optimization of the proposed regulatory strategies.