Two-Dimensional Imaging Velocimetry of Heterogeneous Flow and Brittle Failure in Diamond
Wednesday, 17 December 2014
Understanding the nature and dynamics of heterogeneous flow in diamond subjected to shock compression is important for many fields of research, from inertial confinement fusion to the study of carbon rich planets. Waves propagating through a shocked material can be significantly altered by the various deformation mechanisms present in shocked materials, including anisotropic sound speeds, phase transformations, plastic/inelastic flow and brittle failure. Quantifying the spatial and temporal effects of these deformation mechanisms has been limited by a lack of diagnostics capable of obtaining simultaneous micron resolution spatial measurements and nanosecond resolution time measurements. We have utilized the 2D Janus High Resolution Velocimeter at LLNL to study the time and space dependence of fracture in shock-compressed diamond above the Hugoniot elastic limit. Previous work on the OMEGA laser facility (Rochester) has shown that the free-surface reflectivity of µm-grained diamond samples drops linearly with increasing sample pressure, whereas under the same conditions the reflectivity of nm-grained samples remains unaffected. These disparate observations can be understood by way of better documenting fracture in high-strain compression of diamond. To this end, we have imaged the development and evolution of elastic-wave propagation, plastic-wave propagation and fracture networks in the three primary orientations of single-crystal diamond, as well as in microcrystalline and nanocrystalline diamond, and find that the deformation behavior depends sensitively on the orientation and crystallinity of the diamonds.