Fe3+ partitioning during basalt differentiation on Mars: insights into the oxygen fugacity of the shergottite mantle source(s).

Friday, 19 December 2014: 10:50 AM
Etienne Medard1, Audrey M Martin2, Max Collinet3, Kevin Righter4, Timothy L Grove5, Matthew Newville6 and Antonio Lanzirotti6, (1)Université Blaise Pascal, Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans, Clermont-Ferrand, France, (2)Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States, (3)Université de Liège, Department of Geology, Liège, Belgium, (4)NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, United States, (5)Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Earth, Atmospheric & Planetary Sciences, Cambridge, MA, United States, (6)University of Chicago, Consortium of Advanced Radiation Sources, Chicago, IL, United States
The partitioning of Fe3+ between silicate melts and minerals is a key parameter to understand magmatic processes, as it is directly linked to oxygen fugacity (fO2). fO2 is, a priori, not a constant during magmatic processes, and its evolution depends on the compatibility of Fe3+. We have experimentally determined the partition coefficients of Fe3+ between augite, pigeonite, and silicate melt, and use them to constrain the fO2of the martian mantle and of differentiated martian basalts.

A series of experiments on various martian basaltic compositions were performed under controlled fO2 in one-atmosphere gas-mixing furnaces. Fe3+/Fetotal ratios in silicate melts and pyroxenes were determined using synchrotron Fe K-edge XANES on the 13 IDE beamline at APS (Argonne). Fe3+ mineral/melt partition coefficients (DFe3+) for augite and pigeonite were obtained with a relative uncertainty of 10-15 %. Both are constant over a wide range of oxygen fugacity (FMQ-2.5 to FMQ+2.0). DFe3+ for augite and pigeonite are broadly consistent with previous data by [1], but DFe3+ for augite is significantly higher (by a factor of 2) than the indirect determinations of [2]. Since augites in [2] are extremely poor in iron compared to ours (0.18 wt% vs 13 wt% FeO), this strongly suggests that DFe3+ varies with Mg#, indicating that Fe3+is more compatible than previously thought in terrestrial mantle pyroxenes (3 wt% FeO) as well.

Crystallization paths for shergottite parental melts have been calculated using the MELTS software, combined with our partition coefficients. fO2 in the residual melts is calculated from the models of [3] and [4]. It stays relatively constant at high temperatures, but increases very strongly during the latest stages of crystallization. These results explain the large range of fO2 determined in enriched shergottites. In order to estimate the fO2 of the martian mantle, only the highest temperature phases in the most primitive martian samples should be used. The most primitive shergottites record a mantle fO2 around FMQ-2.5, consistent with the lowest fO2estimated for surface basalts [5].

[1] McCanta et al. (2004) Am Min 89:1685-1693; [2] Mallmann and O’Neill (2009) J Petrol 50:1765-1794; [3] Righter et al. (2013) Am Min 98:616-628; [4] Kress and Carmichael (1991) CMP 108:82-92; [5] Schmidt ME et al. (2014) EPSL 384:198-208.