Development of new impact functions for global risk caused by climate change
Monday, 15 December 2014
The purpose of our study is to identify and quantify global-scale risks which can be caused by future climate change. In particular, we focus on the global-scale risks which have critical impacts to human environments. Use of impact functions is one of the common way to quantify global-scale risks. Output of impact function is climate impacts (e.g. economic damage by temperature increasing) and input can be global temperature increasing and/or socioeconomic condition (e.g. GDP). As the first step of study, we referred to AR5 WG II report (AR5, hereafter) and comprehensive inventories of climate change risks developed by Strategic R&D Area Project of the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund (ICA-RUS project). Then we extracted information which can be used to develop impact function from them. By following SPM/AR5, we focused on 11 sectors and extracted quantitative description on climate impacts from the AR5 and paper/reports cited in AR5. As a result, we identified about 40 risk items to focus as global-scale risks by climate change. Using the collected information, we tentatively made impact function on sea level rise and so on. In addition, we also extracted the impact functions used in Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs). The literature survey on IAM suggested the risk items considered in IAMs are limited. For instance, although FUND model provides detailed impact functions compared with most of other IAMs, its impact functions deal with only several sectors (e.g. agriculture, forestry, biodiversity, sea level rise, human health, energy demand and water resources). The survey on impact functions in IAMs also suggested impact function for abrupt climate change (so-called Tipping Element) is premature. Moreover, as example for quantifying health risk by our calculation, we also present the result on global-scale projection of the health burden attributable to childhood undernutrition (Ishida et al., 2014, ERL).