Integrated SeismoGeodetic Systsem with High-Resolution, Real-Time GNSS and Accelerometer Observation For Earthquake Early Warning Application.
Abstract:The key requirements for Earthquake Early Warning and other Rapid Event Notification Systems are:
- Quick delivery of digital data from a field station to the acquisition and processing center;
- Data integrity for real-time earthquake notification in order to provide warning prior to significant ground shaking in the given target area.
These two requirements are met in the recently developed Trimble SG160-09 SeismoGeodetic System, which integrates both GNSS and acceleration measurements using the Kalman filter algorithm to create a new high-rate (200 sps), real-time displacement with sufficient accuracy and very low latency for rapid delivery of the acquired data to a processing center.
- The data acquisition algorithm in the SG160-09 System provides output of both acceleration and displacement digital data with 0.2 sec delay. This is a significant reduction in the time interval required for real-time transmission compared to data delivery algorithms available in digitizers currently used in other Earthquake Early Warning networks.
- Both acceleration and displacement data are recorded and transmitted to the processing site in a specially developed Multiplexed Recording Format (MRF) that minimizes the bandwidth required for real-time data transmission. In addition, a built in algorithm calculates the τc and Pd once the event is declared. The SG160-09 System keeps track of what data has not been acknowledged and re-transmits the data giving priority to current data.
- Modified REF TEK Protocol Daemon (RTPD) receives the digital data and acknowledges data received without error. It forwards this “good” data to processing clients of various real-time data processing software including Earthworm and SeisComP3. The processing clients cache packets when a data gap occurs due to a dropped packet or network outage. The cache packet time is settable, but should not exceed 0.5 sec in the Earthquake Early Warning network configuration.
The rapid data transmission algorithm was tested with different communication media, including Internet, DSL, Wi-Fi, GPRS, etc. The test results show that the data latency via most communication media do not exceed 0.5 sec nominal from a first sample in the data packet.
Detailed acquisition algorithm and results of data transmission via different communication media are presented.