A COMPARISON OF δ13C & pMC VALUES for TEN CRETACEOUS-JURASSIC DINOSAUR BONES from TEXAS to ALASKA USA, CHINA AND EUROPE WITH THAT OF COAL AND DIAMONDS PRESENTED IN THE 2003 AGU MEETING
Abstract:There is convincing evidence that soft tissue and other biomolecules can survive long periods of fossilization by their interaction with blood iron and/or carbonate absorption. Here are presented the results of investigations showing that ancient biomolecules and their decay products contain significantly more pMC’s (% modern 14C) than diamond and coal presented during a poster session held at the AGU 2003 SF convention.
The title was: The Enigma of the Ubiquity of 14C in organic samples older than 100,000 K. The given range for five diamonds from Botswana and South Africa ranged from 0.096 to 0.146 pMC. Ten coal specimens from the United States from the Eocene to Pennsylvanian geologic interval yielded 0.1 to 0.46 pMC’s. In our extensive field and lab study ten dinosaurs from Texas to Alaska, and China yielded much higher pMC’s of 0.76 to 5.59 after pretreatment to remove modern contaminants.
When 2g of a Belgium Mosasaur from Europe was pretreated to remove contaminants the pMC was 4.68 or 24,600 RC years on Lund Un AMS in Sweden (Lindgren et al. 2011, PloS ONE, page 9).
The endogenous sources of dinosaur pMC’s were further enhanced by the δ13C range of -20.1 to -23.8 for collagen, 16.6-28.4 for bulk organic and -3.1 to -9.1 for CO3 fractions. The δ13C values compare favorably to δ13C values of -23 to -27 in a similar study of dinosaur δ13C values from the Judith River formation in Alberta, Canada that (Ostrom et al. 1993, Geology, v. 21). .
Diamonds from South America (Taylor-Southon, Nuclear Instruments 2007 ) yielded ages of 66,000 to 80,000 years leaving little doubt that at least the dinosaur ages of 22,020 ± 50 to 39,230 ± 140 were not machine error or a result of contamination anymore than the coal samples. This data explains more clearly why such biomolecules have persisted and therefore should not be ignored as the implications are of utmost importance to science and humanity. Thus the experimental results presented here demonstrate the need for systematic 14C-dating of samples from different parts of the entire geologic column to discover patterns of 14C retention and to arrive at a coherent explanation of the results.