Towards Improved High-Resolution Land Surface Hydrologic Reanalysis Using a Physically-Based Hydrologic Model and Data Assimilation
Abstract:A coupled physically based land surface hydrologic model, Flux-PIHM, has been developed by incorporating a land surface scheme into the Penn State Integrated Hydrologic Model (PIHM). The land surface scheme is adapted from the Noah land surface model. Flux-PIHM has been implemented and manually calibrated at the Shale Hills watershed (0.08 km2) in central Pennsylvania. Model predictions of discharge, point soil moisture, point water table depth, sensible and latent heat fluxes, and soil temperature show good agreement with observations. When calibrated only using discharge, and soil moisture and water table depth at one point, Flux-PIHM is able to resolve the observed 101 m scale soil moisture pattern at the Shale Hills watershed when an appropriate map of soil hydraulic properties is provided.
A Flux-PIHM data assimilation system has been developed by incorporating EnKF for model parameter and state estimation. Both synthetic and real data assimilation experiments have been performed at the Shale Hills watershed. Synthetic experiment results show that the data assimilation system is able to simultaneously provide accurate estimates of multiple parameters. In the real data experiment, the EnKF estimated parameters and manually calibrated parameters yield similar model performances, but the EnKF method significantly decreases the time and labor required for calibration. The data requirements for accurate Flux-PIHM parameter estimation via data assimilation using synthetic observations have been tested. Results show that by assimilating only in situ outlet discharge, soil water content at one point, and the land surface temperature averaged over the whole watershed, the data assimilation system can provide an accurate representation of watershed hydrology. Observations of these key variables are available with national and even global spatial coverage (e.g., MODIS surface temperature, SMAP soil moisture, and the USGS gauging stations). National atmospheric reanalysis products, soil databases and land cover databases (e.g., NLDAS-2, SSURGO, NLCD) can provide high resolution forcing and input data. Therefore the Flux-PIHM data assimilation system could be readily expanded to other watersheds to provide regional scale land surface and hydrologic reanalysis with high spatial temporal resolution.