Coupling fluid dynamics and host-rock deformation associated with magma intrusion in the crust: Insights from analogue experiments

Tuesday, 16 December 2014
Janine L Kavanagh, University of Liverpool, Department of Earth, Ocean & Ecological Sciences, Liverpool, L69, United Kingdom and David JC Dennis, University of Liverpool, School of Engineering, Liverpool, United Kingdom
Models of magma ascent in the crust tend to either consider the dynamics of fluid flow within intrusions or the associated host-rock deformation. However, these processes are coupled in nature, and so to develop a more complete understanding of magma ascent dynamics in the crust both need to be taken into account. We present a series of gelatine analogue experiments that use both Particle Image Velocimentry (PIV) and Digital Image Correlation (DIC) techniques to characterise the dynamics of fluid flow within intrusions and to quantify the associated deformation of the intruded media. Experiments are prepared by filling a 40x40x30 cm3 clear-Perspex tank with a low-concentration gelatine mixture (2-5 wt%) scaled to be of comparable stiffness to crustal strata. Fluorescent seeding particles are added to the gelatine mixture during its preparation and to the magma analogue prior to injection. Two Dantec CCD cameras are positioned outside the tank and a vertical high-power laser sheet positioned along the centre line is triggered to illuminate the seeding particles with short intense pulses. Dyed water (the magma analogue) injected into the solid gelatine from below causes a vertically propagating penny-shaped crack (dike) to form. Incremental and cumulative displacement vectors are calculated by cross-correlation between successive images at a defined time interval. Spatial derivatives map the fluid flow within the intrusion and associated strain and stress evolution of the host, both during dike propagation and on to eruption. As the gelatine deforms elastically at the experimental conditions, strain calculations correlate with stress. Models which couple fluid dynamics and host deformation make an important step towards improving our understanding of the dynamics of magma transport through the crust and to help constrain the tendency for eruption.