What Can Spectral Properties of Martian Surface and Snc Can Tell Us about the Martian Crust Composition and Evolution

Friday, 19 December 2014
Anouck Ody1, Francois Poulet2, David Baratoux3, Cathy Quantin1 and Jean-Pierre Bibring2, (1)LGLTPE Laboratoire de Géologie de Lyon : Terre, Planètes et Environnement, Villeurbanne Cedex, France, (2)IAS Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, Orsay Cedex, France, (3)Observatory Midi-Pyrenees, Toulouse, France
While the study of Martian meteorites can provide detailed information about the crust and mantle composition and evolution, remote-sensing observations, through the merging of compositional and geological data, allow highlighting planetary-scale trends of the Martian crustal evolution [1,2]. Recently, the analysis of the global distribution of mafic minerals [3] has put new constraints on the Martian crust formation and evolution. One of the major results is a past global event of olivine-bearing fissural volcanism that has filled craters and low depressions in the southern highlands and a large part of the Northern plains during the late Noachian/early Hesperian. Petrologic models show that this sudden increase of the olivine content at the Noachian-Hesperian boundary could be the result of a rapid thickening of the lithosphere at the end of the Noachian era [4]. A recent study based on the OMEGA/MEx data has shown that the spectral properties of the shergottites are similar to those of some Noachian and Hesperian terrains [5]. To contrary, the Nakhla spectral properties are very different from those of the observable surface and could be representative of Amazonian terrains buried under dust. These results are best explained with an old age of the shergottites [6] and with the present understanding of the evolution of magma composition at a planetary scale [7]. On the other hand, if shergottites are young [8], the similarities between the shergottites and ancient terrains implies that exceptional conditions of melting with respect to the ambient mantle (e.g., hot spots or water-rich mantle source) were responsible for the formation of these samples [9]. References: [1] McSween et al., 2009, Science, 324. [2] Ehlmann & Edwards 2014, AREPS, vol. 42. [3] Ody et al., 2013, JGR,117,E00J14. [4] Ody et al., 2014, 8th Inter. Conf. on Mars,#1190. [5] Ody et al., 2013, 44th LPSC, #1719. [6] Bouvier et al., 2009, EPSL, 280. [7] Baratoux et al., 2013, JGR, 118. [8] Nyquist et al., [2001], Chronology and Evolution of Mars, pp. 105–164. [9] Balta and McSween, 2013, Geology,v. 41, p. 1115-1118. Acknowledgment:The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union's Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013)/ERC Grant agreement n°280168 .