Numerical modeling of watershed-scale radiocesium transport coupled with biogeochemical cycling in forests
Abstract:Since the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, intensive monitoring and modeling works on radionuclide transfer in environment have been carried out.
Although Cesium (Cs) concentration has been attenuating due to both physical and environmental half-life (i.e., wash-off by water and sediment), the attenuation rate depends clearly on the type of land use and land cover. In the Fukushima case, studying the migration in forest land use is important for predicting the long-term behavior of Cs because most of the contaminated region is covered by forests.
Atmospheric fallout is characterized by complicated behavior in biogeochemical cycle in forests which can be described by biotic/abiotic interactions between many components. In developing conceptual and mathematical model on Cs transfer in forest ecosystem, defining the dominant components and their interactions are crucial issues (BIOMASS, 1997-2001). However, the modeling of fate and transport in geosphere after Cs exports from the forest ecosystem is often ignored.
An integrated watershed modeling for simulating spatiotemporal redistribution of Cs that includes the entire region from source to mouth and surface to subsurface, has been recently developed. Since the deposited Cs can migrate due to water and sediment movement, the different species (i.e., dissolved and suspended) and their interactions are key issues in the modeling. However, the initial inventory as source-term was simplified to be homogeneous and time-independent, and biogeochemical cycle in forests was not explicitly considered. Consequently, it was difficult to evaluate the regionally-inherent characteristics which differ according to land uses, even if the model was well calibrated.
In this study, we combine the different advantages in modeling of forest ecosystem and watershed. This enable to include more realistic Cs deposition and time series of inventory can be forced over the land surface. These processes are integrated into the watershed simulator GETFLOWS coupled with biogeochemical cycling in forests. We present brief a overview of the simulator and an application for reservoir basin.