Global scale variability of the mineral dust longwave refractive index from laboratory chamber experiments: re‒evaluation of its direct radiative effect

Claudia Di Biagio1, Paola Formenti1, Yves Balkanski2, Lorenzo Caponi1,3, Mathieu Cazaunau1, Edouard Pangui1, Emilie Journet1, Sophie Nowak4, Sandrine Caquineau5, Meinrat O Andreae6, Konrad Kandler7, Thuraya Saeed8, Stuart Piketh9, Dave Seibert10, Earle Williams11, Olivier Boucher12 and Jean-Francois Doussin1, (1)Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques (LISA), CNRS UMR7583, Universités Paris-Est Créteil et Paris Diderot, Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL), Créteil, France, (2)LSCE, CEA CNRS UVSQ, 91191, Gif sur Yvette, France, Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex, France, (3)Department of Physics&INFN, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy, (4)Plateforme RX UFR de chimie, UPD, Paris, France, (5)UMR LOCEAN - IRD-Sorbonne Universités (UPMC Univ, Paris 06)-CNRS-MNHN, Paris, France, (6)Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany, (7)Technische Universität Darmstadt, Institut für Angewandte Geowissenschaften, Darmstadt, Germany, (8)College of Basic Education, PAAET, Al-Ardeya, Kuwait, (9)North-West University, Unit for Environmental Science and Management, Potchefstroom, South Africa, (10)Walden University, Minneapolis, United States, (11)Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States, (12)LMD, Paris Cedex 05, France