Dynamics of an Array of Hydraulic Jumps in an Active Submarine Channel

Monday, 15 December 2014
Jeffrey Peakall1, Robert Michael Dorrell1, Esther J Sumner2, Daniel R Parsons3, Stephen E Darby4, Russell B. Wynn5, Emin Ozsoy6 and Devrim Tezcan6, (1)University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2, United Kingdom, (2)Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, CA, United States, (3)University of Hull, Hull, HU6, United Kingdom, (4)University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom, (5)National Oceanography Center, Soton, Southampton, United Kingdom, (6)Middle Eastern Technical University, Institute of Marine Sciences, Erdemli, Turkey
Hydraulic jumps, or bores, are formed when a flow rapidly thickens and slows down, passing from a Froude number defined super to subcritical state. Such transitional behaviour occurs as a flow responds to changes in bed slope or channel geometry. Hydraulic jumps are thought to be ubiquitous features formed in submarine channelized flows, as well as in river channels.

Here, for the first time, we present integrated velocity and density measurements across an array of hydraulic jumps. The velocity data were collected using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP)), and the density data were collected using a Conductivity, Temperature Depth (CTD) probe. The hydraulic jumps were generated by scour features, in a channelized, density stratified flow exiting the Bosphorus Strait onto the continental shelf region in South West Black Sea. It is observed that with stratification of the flow the dilute upper layer completely bypasses any forcing arising from the changing bed slope, whilst the denser lower layer responds by generating an internal hydraulic jump. Such flow behaviour is distinct to that observed in open-channel systems, where flows are rarely sufficiently stratified to generate internal hydraulic jumps.

This direct field evidence supports previous experimental and theoretical analysis of hydraulic jumps in stratified shear flow. However, the field data raise several fundamental physical questions relating to the mechanics of internal hydraulic jumps. Firstly, it is observed that surface rollers, resulting in upstream flow velocity, are consistently found hundreds of metres before the slope break initiating the hydraulic jump. Secondly it is observed that the Froude criticality of the upper dilute layer is inversely related to that of the lower layer. Thirdly, it is noted that with a bypassing upper flow layer, sediment transport dynamics of coarse versus fine grained sediment past the slope break will be significantly different, resulting in characteristic depositional features unique to stratified flow conditions.