Source Apportionment of PM2.5 using PMF and CMB: Comparison of the Effects of Transboundary and Local Pollutions in the Western Japan

Monday, 15 December 2014
Akihiro Iijima, Takasaki City Univeristy of Economy, Takasaki, Japan and Seiji Sugata, Ntnl. Inst. for Envir. Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
PM2.5 has become one of the most important aspects in recent air pollution issues. In Japan, the achievement rate of the environmental quality standard for PM2.5 is in a worse situation so far (43.3% for ambient air monitoring station, 33.3% for roadside air pollution monitoring station in FY2012). Therefore, source apportionment will be essential to policy and decision making for improving the PM2.5 pollution.

Since 2011, we started the field monitoring study called “Current Status Elucidation and Source Contribution Assessment of PM2.5 Pollution in Collaboration with Environmental Research Institutes across Japan” which was granted by the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund (5B-1101) of the Ministry of the Environment, Japan. PM2.5 samples were collected at 14 sites during four campaigns. Chemical analyses of carbonaceous compounds, ionic species, and elements were conducted.

Source apportionment was performed by using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF, EPA PMF 3.0) and Chemical Mass Balance (CMB, EPA CMB 8.1) models. PMF model resolved a six-factor solution. Each of these factors has a distinctive grouping of species that can be associated with a specific source sector (F1: Biomass burning, F2: Sulfate + Oil combustion, F3: Industry, F4: Nitrate, F5: Sulfate + Coal combustion, and F6: Chloride). In the winter campaign (Jan. 24 to Feb. 7) in 2013, F5 accounted for 50% of total PM2.5 mass at Tsushima (34.2°N 129.3°E, the westernmost remote site). The contribution of F5 tended to decrease toward the eastern sites (27% at Fukuoka (33.5°N 130.5°E, urban site), 22% at Higashi-Osaka (34.7°N 135.6°E, urban site)). CMB model showed similar results in the same campaign. Coal combustion accounted for 49%, 30%, and 22% of total PM2.5 mass at Tsushima, Fukuoka, and Higashi-Osaka, respectively (Fig.1). On the other hand, at urban sites, higher contributions from local sources such as secondary nitrate (16% at Fukuoka, 21% at Higashi-Osaka), diesel fuel automobile (11% at Fukuoka, 12% at Higashi-Osaka), and waste incineration (7% at Fukuoka, 14% at Higashi-Osaka) were observed. This study clearly shows that the effects from the local sources are also important at the urban sites in Japan, while the impact of transboundary pollution from the Asian Continent has attracted a lot of attention in recent years.